About this Author
College chemistry, 1983
The 2002 Model
After 10 years of blogging. . .
Derek Lowe, an Arkansan by birth, got his BA from Hendrix College and his PhD in organic chemistry from Duke before spending time in Germany on a Humboldt Fellowship on his post-doc. He's worked for several major pharmaceutical companies since 1989 on drug discovery projects against schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, diabetes, osteoporosis and other diseases.
To contact Derek email him directly: email@example.com
August 14, 2014
A huge amount of what's actually going on inside living cells involves protein-protein interactions. Drug discovery, for obvious reasons, focuses on the processes that depend on small molecules and their binding sites (thus the preponderance of receptor ligands and enzyme inhibitors), but small molecules are only part of the story in there.
And we've learned a fair amount about all this protein-protein deal-making, but there's clearly a lot that we don't understand at all. If we did, perhaps we'd have more compounds that can target them. Here's a very basic topic about which we know very little: how tight are the affinities between all these interacting proteins? What's the usual level, and what's the range? What does the variation in binding constants say about the signaling pathways involved, and the sorts of binding surfaces that are being presented? How long do these protein complexes last? How weak can one of these interactions be, and still be physiologically important?
A new paper has something to say about that last part. The authors have found a bacterial system where protein phosphorylation takes place effectively although the affinity between the two partners (KD) is only around 25 millimolar. That's very weak indeed - for those outside of drug discovery, small-molecule drug affinities are typically well over a million times that level. We don't know how common or important such weak interactions are, but this work suggests that we're going to have to look pretty far up the scale in order to understand things, and that's probably going to require new technologies to quantify such things. Unless we figure out that huge, multipartner protein dance that's going on, with all its moves and time signatures, we're not going to understand biochemistry. The Labanotation for a cell would be something to see. . .
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July 22, 2014
So, when you put some diverse small molecules into cellular assays, how many proteins are they really hitting? You may know a primary target or two that they're likely to interact with, or (if you're doing phenotypic screening), you may not have any idea at all. But how many proteins (or other targets) are there that bind small molecules at all?
This is a question that many people are interested in, but hard data to answer it are not easily obtained. There have been theoretical estimates via several techniques, but (understandably) not too much experimental evidence. Now comes this paper from Ben Cravatt's group, and it's one of the best attempts yet.
What they've done is to produce a library of compounds, via Ugi chemistry, containing both a photoaffinity handle and an alkyne (for later "click" tagging). They'd done something similar before, but the photoaffinity group in that case was a benzophenone, which is rather hefty. This time they used a diazirine, which is both small and the precursor to a very reactive carbene once it's irradiated. (My impression is that the diazirine is the first thing to try if you're doing photoaffinity work, for just those reasons). They made a small set of fairly diverse compounds (about 60), with no particular structural biases in mind, and set out to see what these things would label.
They treated PC-3 cells (human prostate-cancer derived) with each member of the library at 10 µM, then hit them with UV to do the photoaffinity reaction, labeled with a fluorescent tag via the alkyne, and fished for proteins. What they found was a pretty wide variety, all right, but not in the nonselective shotgun style. Most compounds showed distinct patterns of protein labeling, and most proteins picked out distinct SAR from the compound set. They picked out six members of the library for close study, and found that these labeled about 24 proteins (one compound only picked up one target, while the most promiscuous compound labeled nine). What's really interesting is that only about half of these were known to have any small-molecule ligands at all. There were proteins from a number of different classes, and some (9 out of 24) weren't even enzymes, but rather scaffolding and signaling proteins (which wouldn't be expected to have many small-molecule binding possibilities).
A closer look at non-labeled versions of the probe compounds versus more highly purified proteins confirmed that the compounds really are binding as expected (in some cases, a bit better than the non-photoaffinity versions, in some cases worse). So even as small a probe as a diazirine is not silent, which is just what medicinal chemists would have anticipated. (Heck, even a single methyl or fluoro isn't always silent, and a good thing, too). But overall, what this study suggests is that most small molecules are going to hit a number of proteins (1 up to a dozen?) in any given cell with pretty good affinity. It also (encouragingly) suggests that there are more small-molecule binding sites than you'd think, with proteins that have not evolved for ligand responses still showing the ability to pick things up.
There was another interesting thing that turned up: while none of the Ugi compounds was a nonselective grab-everything compound, some of the proteins were. A subset of proteins tended to pick up a wide variety of the non-clickable probe compounds, and appear to be strong, promiscuous binders. Medicinal chemists already know a few of these things - CYP metabolizing enzymes, serum albumin, and so on. This post has some other suggestions. But there are plenty more of them out there, unguessable ones that we don't know about yet (in this case, PTGR and VDAC subtypes, along with NAMPT). There's a lot to find out.
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July 16, 2014
If you ever find yourself needing to make large cyclic peptides, you now have a new option. This paper in Organic Letters describes a particularly clean way to do it: let glutathione-S-transferase (GST) do the work for you. Bradley Pentelute's group at MIT reports that if your protein has a glutathione attached at one end, and a pentafluoroaryl Cys at the other, that GST will step in and promote the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction to close the two ends together.
This is an application of their earlier work on the uncatalyzed reaction and on the use of GST for ligation.. Remarkably, the GST method seems to product very high yields of cyclic peptides up to at least 40 residues, and at reasonable concentration (10 mM) of the starting material, under aqueous conditions. Cyclic peptides themselves are interesting beasts, often showing unusual properties compared to the regular variety, and this method look as it will provide plenty more of them for study.
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July 14, 2014
What's the best carrier to take some sort of therapeutic agent into the bloodstream? That's often a tricky question to work out in animal models or in the clinic - there are a lot of possibilities. But what about using red blood cells themselves?
That idea has been in the works for a few years now, but there's a recent paper in PNAS reporting on more progress (here's a press release). Many drug discovery scientists will have encountered the occasional compound that partitions into erythrocytes all by itself (those are usually spotted by their oddly long half-lives after in vivo dosing, mimicking the effect of plasma protein binding). One of the early ways that people have attempted to try this deliberately was forcing a compound into the cells, but this tends to damage them and make them quite a bit less useful. A potentially more controllable method would be to modify the surfaces of the RBCs themselves to serve as drug carriers, but that's quite a bit more complex, too. Antibodies have been tried for this, but with mixed success.
That's what this latest paper addresses. The authors (the Lodish and Ploegh groups at Whitehead/MIT) introduce modified surface proteins (such as glycophorin A) that are substrates for Ploegh's sortase technology (two recent overview papers), which allows for a wide variety of labeling.
Experiments using modified fetal cells in irradiated mice gave animals that had up to 50% of their RBCs modified in this way. Sortase modification of these was about 85% effective, so plenty of label can be introduced. The labeling process doesn't appear to affect the viability of the cells very much as compared to wild-type - the cells were shown to circulate for weeks, which certainly breaks the records held by the other modified-RBC methods.
The team attached either biotin tags and specific antibodies to both mouse and human RBCs, which would appear to clear the way for a variety of very interesting experiments. (They also showed that simultaneous C- and N-terminal labeling is feasible, to put on two different tags at once). Here's the "coming attractions" section of the paper:
he approach presented here has many other possible applications; the wide variety of possible payloads, ranging from proteins and peptides to synthetic compounds and fluorescent probes, may serve as a guide. We have conjugated a single-domain antibody to the RBC surface with full retention of binding specificity, thus enabling the modified RBCs to be targeted to a specific cell type. We envision that sortase-engineered cells could be combined with established protocols of small-molecule encapsulation. In this scenario, engineered RBCs loaded with a therapeutic agent in the cytosol and modified on the surface with a cell type-specific recognition module could be used to deliver payloads to a precise tissue or location in the body. We also have demonstrated the attachment of two different functional probes to the surface of RBCs, exploiting the subtly different recognition specificities of two distinct sortases. Therefore it should be possible to attach both a therapeutic moiety and a targeting module to the RBC surface and thus direct the engineered RBCs to tumors or other diseased cells. Conjugation of an imaging probe (i.e., a radioisotope), together with such a targeting moiety also could be used for diagnostic purposes.
This will be worth keeping an eye on, for sure, both as a new delivery method for small (and not-so-small) molecules, fof biologics, and for its application to all the immunological work going on now in oncology. This should keep everyone involved busy for some time to come!
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June 2, 2014
Last year I mentioned an interesting paper that managed to do single-cell pharmacokinetics on olaparib, a poly(ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor. A fluorescently-tagged version of the drug could be spotted moving into cells and even accumulating in the nucleus. The usual warnings apply: adding a fluorescent tag can disturb the various molecular properties that you're trying to study in the first place. But the paper did a good set of control experiments to try to get around that problem, and this is still the only way known (for now) to get such data.
The authors are back with a follow-up paper that provides even more detail. They're using fluorescence polarization/fluorescence anisotropy microscopy. That can be a tricky technique, but done right, it provides a lot of information. The idea (as the assay-development people in the audience well know) is that when fluorescent molecules are excited by polarized light, their emission is affected by how fast they're rotating. If the rotation is slowed down to below the fluorescence lifetime of the molecules (as happens when they're bound to a protein), then you see more polarization in the emitted light, but if the molecules are tumbling around freely, that's mostly lost. There are numerous complications - you need to standardize each new system according to how much things change in increasingly viscous solutions, the fluorophores can't get too close together, you have to be careful with the field of view in your imaging system to avoid artifacts - but that's the short form.
In this case, they're using near-IR light to do the excitation, because those wavelengths are well known to penetrate living cells well. Their system also needs two photons to excite each molecule, which improves signal-to-noise and the two-photon dye is a BODIPY compound. These things have been used in fluorescence studies with wild abandon for the past few years - at one point, I was beginning to think that the acronym was a requirement to get a paper published in Chem. Comm. They have a lot of qualities (cell penetration, fluorescence lifetime, etc.) that make them excellent candidates for this kind of work.
This is the same olaparib/BODIPY hybrid used in the paper last year, and you see the results. The green fluorescence is nonspecific binding, while the red is localized to the nuclei, and doesn't wash out. If you soak the cells with unlabeled olaparib beforehand, though, you don't see this effect at all, which also argues for the PARP1-bound interpretation of these results. This paper takes things even further, though - after validating this in cultured cells, they moved on to live mice, using an implanted window chamber over a xenograft.
And they saw the same pattern: quick cellular uptake of the labeled drug on infusion into the mice, followed by rapid binding to nuclear PARP1. The intracellular fluorescence then cl