Academic publishing fraud in China has come up here before, but Science has an in-depth look at the problem. And a big problem it is:
"There are some authors who don't have much use for their papers after they're published, and they can be transferred to you," a sales agent for a company called Wanfang Huizhi told a Science reporter posing as a scientist. Wanfang Huizhi, the agent explained, acts as an intermediary between researchers with forthcoming papers in good journals and scientists needing to snag publications. The company would sell the title of co–first author on the cancer paper for 90,000 yuan ($14,800). Adding two names—co–first author and co–corresponding author—would run $26,300, with a deposit due upon acceptance and the rest on publication. A purported sales document from Wanfang Huizhi obtained by Science touts the convenience of this kind of arrangement: "You only need to pay attention to your academic research. The heavy labor can be left to us. Our service can help you make progress in your academic path!"
For anyone who cares about science and research, this is revolting. If you care a lot more about climbing that slippery ladder up to a lucrative position, though, it might be just the thing, right? There are all sorts of people ready to help you realize your dreams, too:
The options include not just paying for an author's slot on a paper written by other scientists but also self-plagiarizing by translating a paper already published in Chinese and resubmitting it in English; hiring a ghostwriter to compose a paper from faked or independently gathered data; or simply buying a paper from an online catalog of manuscripts—often with a guarantee of publication.
Offering these services are brokers who hawk titles and SCI paper abstracts from their perches in China; individuals such as a Chinese graduate student who keeps a blog listing unpublished papers for sale; fly-by-night operations that advertise online; and established companies like Wanfang Huizhi that also offer an array of above-board services, such as arranging conferences and producing tailor-made coins and commemorative stamps. Agencies boast at conferences that they can write papers for scientists who lack data. They cold-call journal editors. They troll for customers in chat programs. . .
The journal contacted 27 agencies in China, with reporters posing as graduate students or other scientists, and asked about paying to get on a list of authors or paying to have a paper written up from scratch. 22 of them were ready to help with either or both. Many of these were to be placed in Chinese-language journals, but for a higher fee you could get into more international titles as well. Because of Chinese institutional insistence on high-impact-factor journal publications, people who can deliver that kind of publication can charge as much as a young professor's salary. (Since some institutions turn around and pay a bonus for such publications, though, it can still be feasible).
Some agencies claim they not only prepare and submit papers for a client: They furnish the data as well. "IT'S UNBELIEVABLE: YOU CAN PUBLISH SCI PAPERS WITHOUT DOING EXPERIMENTS," boasts a flashing banner on Sciedit's website.
One timesaver: a ready stock of abstracts at hand for clients who need to get published fast. Jiecheng Editing and Translation entices clients on its website with titles of papers that only lack authors. An agency representative told an undercover Science reporter that the company buys data from a national laboratory in Hunan province.
The article goes on to show that there are many Chinese scientists that are trying to do something about all this. I hope that they succeed, but it's going to take a lot of work to realign the incentives. Unless this happens, though, the Chinese-language scientific literature risks finding itself devolving into a bad joke, and papers from Chinese institutions risk having to go through extra levels of scrutiny when submitted abroad.