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March 21, 2013
AstraZeneca Makes a Deal With Moderna. Wait, Who?
AstraZeneca has announced another 2300 job cuts, this time in sales and administration. That's not too much of a surprise, as the cuts announced recently in R&D make it clear that the company is determined to get smaller. But their overall R&D strategy is still unclear, other than "We can't go on like this", which is clear enough.
One interesting item has just come out, though. The company has done a deal with Moderna Therapeutics of Cambridge (US), a relatively new outfit that's trying something that (as far as I know) no one else has had the nerve to. Moderna is trying to use messenger RNAs as therapies, to stimulate the body's own cells to produce more of some desired protein product. This is the flip side of antisense and RNA interference, where you throw a wrench into the transcription/translation machinery to cut down on some protein. Moderna's trying to make the wheels spin in the other direction.
This is the sort of idea that makes me feel as if there are two people inhabiting my head. One side of me is very excited and interested to see if this approach will work, and the other side is very glad that I'm not one of the people being asked to do it. I've always thought that messing up or blocking some process was an easier task than making it do the right thing (only more so), and in this case, we haven't even reliably shown that blocking such RNA pathways is a good way to a therapy.
I also wonder about the disease areas that such a therapy would treat, and how amenable they are to the approach. The first one that occurs to a person is "Allow Type I diabetics to produce their own insulin", but if your islet cells have been disrupted or killed off, how is that going to work? Will other cell types recognize the mRNA-type molecules you're giving, and make some insulin themselves? If they do, what sort of physiological control will they be under? Beta-cells, after all, are involved in a lot of complicated signaling to tell them when to make insulin and when to lay off. I can also imagine this technique being used for a number of genetic disorders, where we know what the defective protein is and what it's supposed to be. But again, how does the mRNA get to the right tissues at the right time? Protein expression is under so many constraints and controls that it seems almost foolhardy to think that you could step in, dump some mRNA on the process, and get things to work the way that you want them to.
But all that said, there's no substitute for trying it out. And the people behind Moderna are not fools, either, so you can be sure that these questions (and many more) have crossed their minds already. (The company's press materials claim that they've addressed the cellular-specificity problem, for example). They've gotten a very favorable deal from AstraZeneca - admittedly a rather desperate company - but good enough that they must have a rather convincing story to tell with their internal data. This is the very picture of a high-risk, high-reward approach, and I wish them success with it. A lot of people will be watching very closely.
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