That's the word-for-word title of a provocative article by Rolf Carlson and Tomas Hudlicky in Helvetica Chimica Acta. That journal's usually not quite this exciting, but it is proud of its reputation for compound characterization and experimental accuracy. That probably helped this manuscript find a home there, where it's part of a Festschrift issue in honor of Dieter Seebach's 75th birthday.
The authors don't hold back much (and Hudlicky has not been shyabout these issues, either, as some readers will know). So, for the three categories of malfeasance described in the title, the first (hype) includes the overblown titling of many papers:
As long as the foolish use of various metrics continues there is little hope of return to integrity. Young scientists entering academia and competing for resources and recognition are easily infected with the mantra of importance of
publishing in 'high-impact journals' and, therefore, strive to make their work as noticeable as possible by employing excess hype.
It is the reader, not the author, of papers describing synthetic method who should evaluate its merits. Therefore, self-promoting words like 'novel', 'new', 'efficient', 'simple', 'high-yielding', 'versatile', 'optimum' should not be used in the title of the paper if such qualities are not covered by the actual content of the paper.
It also includes the inflation of reaction yields (see that link in the second paragraph above for more on that topic). This is another one that's going to be hard to fix:
Unfortunately, the community has chosen and continues to choose the yield values in submitted manuscripts as a measure of overall quality and/or utility of the report. This, of course, encourages the 'adjustment' in the values in order to avoid critique. An additional problem in the reported values is the fact that synthesis is performed on small scales, thanks to advances in NMR and other techniques available for structure determination. On milligram scales it is extremely difficult to accurately determine weight and content of a sample, given the equipment available in typical academic laboratory.
The second category, malpractice, is sloppy work, but not outright fraud:
Malpractice, as explained above, is usually not deliberate and derives primarily from ignorance or professional incompetence. The most frequent cases involve improper experimental protocols, improper methods used in characterization of compounds, and the lack of correct citations to previous work.
For example, the authors point out that very, very rarely are any new synthetic methods given a proper optimization. One-variable one-at-a-time changes are worthwhile, but they're not sufficient to explore a reaction manifold, not when these changes can interact with each other. As process chemists in industry know, the only way to explore such landscapes is with techniques such as Design of Experiments (DoE), which try to find out what factors in a multivariate system produce the greatest change in results. Here's an example; the process chemistry literature furnishes many more.
And finally, you have outright scientific misconduct - fraud, poaching of ideas from grant applications and the like, plagiarism in publications, etc. It's hard to get a handle on these - they seem to be increasing, but the techniques to find and expose them are also getting better. Over time, thought, these techniques might just have the effect of making fraud more sophisticated; that would be in line with human behavior as I understand it, and with selection pressure as well. The motives for such acts are with us still, and do not seem to be abating much, so I tend to think that determined miscreants will find ways to do what they want to do.
Thoughts? Some of this paper's points could be put in the "grumblings about the good old days" category, but I think that a lot of it is accurate. I'm not sure how good the old days were, myself, since they were also filled with human beings, but the pressures found today do seem to be bringing on a lot of behaviors we could do without.