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October 5, 2009
A Nobel for Telomerase
As many had expected, a Nobel Prize has been awarded to Elizabeth Blackburn (of UCSF), Carol Greider (of Johns Hopkins), and Jack Szostak (of Harvard Medical School/Howard Hughes Inst.) for their work on telomerase. Blackburn had been studying telomeres since her postdoc days in the late 1970s, and she and Szostak worked together in the field in the early 1980s, collarborating from two different angles. Greider (then a graduate student in Blackburn's lab) discovered the telomerase enzyme in 1984. She's continued to work in the area, as well she might, since it's been an extremely interesting and important one.
Telomeres, as many readers will know, are repeating DNA stretches found on the end of chromosomes. It was realized in the 1970s that something of this kind needed to be there, since otherwise replication of the chromosomes would inevitably clip off a bit from the end each time (the enzymes involved can't go all the way to the ends of the strands). Telomeres are the disposable buffer regions, which distinguish the natural end of a chromosome from a plain double-stranded DNA break.
What became apparent, though was that the telomerase complex often didn't quite compensate for telomere shortening. This provides a mechanism for limiting the number of cell divisions - when the telomeres get below a certain length, further replication is shut down. Telomerase activity is higher in stem cells and a few other specialized lines. This means that the whole area must be a key part of both cellular aging and the biology of cancer. In a later post, I'll talk about telomerase as a drug target, a tricky endeavour that straddles both of those topics.
It's no wonder that this work has attracted the amount of attention it has, and it's no wonder either that it's the subject of a well deserved Nobel. Congratulations to the recipients!
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