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DBL%20Hendrix%20small.png College chemistry, 1983

Derek Lowe The 2002 Model

Dbl%20new%20portrait%20B%26W.png After 10 years of blogging. . .

Derek Lowe, an Arkansan by birth, got his BA from Hendrix College and his PhD in organic chemistry from Duke before spending time in Germany on a Humboldt Fellowship on his post-doc. He's worked for several major pharmaceutical companies since 1989 on drug discovery projects against schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, diabetes, osteoporosis and other diseases. To contact Derek email him directly: Twitter: Dereklowe

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February 14, 2008

Getting Real With Real Cells

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Posted by Derek

I’ve been reading an interesting paper from JACS with the catchy title of “Optimization of Activity-Based Probes for Proteomic Profiling of Histone Deacetylase Complexes”. This is work from Benjamin Cravatt's lab at Scripps, and it says something about me, I suppose, that I found that title of such interest that I immediately printed off a copy to study more closely. Now I’ll see if I can interest anyone who wasn’t already intruiged! First off, some discussion of protein tagging, so if you’re into that stuff already, you may want to skip ahead.

So, let’s say you have a molecule that has some interesting biological effect, but you’re not sure how it works. You have suspicions that it’s binding to some protein and altering its effects (always a good guess), but which protein? Protein folks love fluorescent assays, so if you could hang some fluorescent molecule off one end of yours, perhaps you could start the hunt: expose your cells to the tagged molecule, break them open, look for the proteins that glow. There are complications, though. You’d have to staple the fluorescent part on in a way that didn’t totally mess up that biological activity you care about, which isn’t always easy (or even possible). The fact that most of the good fluorescent tags are rather large and ugly doesn’t help. But there’s more trouble: even if you manage to do that, what’s to keep your molecule from drifting right back off of the protein while you’re cleaning things up for a look at the system? Odds are it will, unless it has a really amazing binding constant, and that’s not the way to bet.

One way around that problem is sticking yet another appendage on to the molecule, a so-called photoaffinity label. These groups turn into highly reactive species on exposure to particular wavelengths of light, ready to form a bond with the first thing they see. If your molecule is carrying one when it’s bound to your mystery protein, shining light on the system will likely cause a permanent bond to form between the two. Then you can do all your purifications and separations, and look at your leisure for which proteins fluoresce.

This is “activity-based protein profiling”, and it’s a hot field. There are a lot of different photoaffinity labels, and a lot of ways to attach them, and likewise with the fluorescent groups. The big problem, as mentioned above, is that it’s very hard to get both of those on your molecule of interest and still keep its biological activity – that’s an awful lot of tinsel to carry around. One slick solution is to use a small placeholder for the big fluorescent part. This, ideally, would be some little group that will hide out innocently during the whole protein-binding and photoaffinity-labeling steps, then react with a suitably decorated fluorescent partner once everything’s in place. This assembles your glowing tag after the fact.

A favorite way to do that step is through an azide-acetylene cycloaddition reaction, the favorite of Barry Sharpless’s “click” reactions. Acetylenes are small and relatively unreactive, and at the end of the process, after you’ve lysed the cells and released all their proteins, you can flood your system with azide-substituted fluorescent reagent. The two groups react irreversibly under mild catalytic conditions to make a triazole ring linker, which is a nearly ideal solution that’s getting a lot of use these days (more on this another day).

So, now to this paper. What this group did was label a known compound (from Ron Breslow's group at Columbia) that targets histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, SAHA, now on the market as Vorinostat. There are a lot of different subtypes of HDAC, and they do a lot of important but obscure things that haven’t been worked out yet. It’s a good field to discover protein function in.

When they modified SAHA in just the way described above, with an acetylene and a photoaffinity group, it maintained its activity on the known enzymes, so things looked good. They then exposed it to cell lysate, the whole protein soup, and found that while it did label HDAC enzymes, it seemed to label a lot of other things in the background. That kind of nonspecific activity can kill an assay, but they tried the label out on living cells anyway, just to see what would happen.

Very much to their surprise, that experiment led to much cleaner and more specific labeling of HDACs. The living system was much nicer than the surrogate, which (believe me) is not how things generally go. Some HDACs were labeled much more than others, though, and my first thought on reading that was “Well, yeah, sure, your molecule is a more potent binder to some of them”.

But that wasn’t the case, either. When they profiled their probe molecule’s activity versus a panel of HDAC enzymes, they did indeed find different levels of binding – but those didn’t match up with which ones were labeled more in the cells. (One explanation might be that the photoaffinity label found some of the proteins easier to react with than others, perhaps due to what was nearby in each case when the reactive species formed).

Their next step was to make a series of modified SAHA scaffolds and rig them up with the whole probe apparatus. Exposing these to cell lysate showed that many of them performed fine, labeling HDAC subtypes as they should, and with different selectivities than the original. But when they put these into cells, none of them worked as well as the plain SAHA probe – again, rather to their surprise. (A lot of work went into making and profiling those variations, so I suspect that this wasn’t exactly the result the team had hoped for - my sympathies to Cravatt and especially to his co-author Cleo Salisbury). The paper sums the situation up dryly: "These results demonstrate that in vitro labeling is not necessarily predictive of in situ labeling for activity-based protein profiling probes".

And that matches up perfectly with my own prejudices, so it must be right. I've come to think, over the years, that the way to go is to run your ideas against the most complex system you think that they can stand up to - in fact, maybe one step beyond that, because you may have underestimated them. A strict reductionist might have stopped after the cell lysate experiments in this case - clearly, this probe was too nonspecific, no need to waste time on the real system, eh? But the real system, the living cell, is real in complex ways that we don't understand well at all, and that makes this inference invalid.

The same goes for medicinal chemistry and drug development. If you say "in vitro", I say "whole cells". If you've got it working in cells, I'll call for mice. Then I'll see your mice and raise you some dogs. Get your compounds as close to reality as you can before you pass judgment on them.

Comments (5) + TrackBacks (0) | Category: Biological News | Drug Assays | Drug Development


1. SP on February 14, 2008 9:56 AM writes...

Oy, why do they still print NMR shifts and couplings in the main text? Does anyone read these unless they're trying to replicate the experiment? This is the definition of supplemental material.

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2. MTK on February 14, 2008 1:11 PM writes...


Related to your comment, I'll add this:

I haven't had time to read the paper yet to get into the science, but one thing that struck me was the organization of the paper. Intro, experimental, results and discussion, then conclusion like most biological papers. Most chemistry papers are intro, results and discussion, conclusion, then experimental.
Prof. Cravatt is becoming more of a biologist everyday! (Or maybe we're becoming biologists. In reading his past work, I've always been impressed how much he tailors his writing to the audience of the journal.)

This organizational tradition in publications is interesting to me in light of a conference I was once attended which had biologists and chemists. Midway through one of the biologists came up to me and said, "You chemists must really trust each other. I didn't see a single piece of raw data." I had to admit he was right. We show yields, structures, ee's and the rest but rarely do we present a chromatogram or spectra.

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3. NickK on February 14, 2008 3:03 PM writes...

I´d like to second Derek's closing remark in this article: often drug candidates get deep-sixed too soon, on the basis of dodgy in-vitro assays. I am sure a lot of good compounds have been missed like this. Remember, sildenafil {Viagra) was a second-rate cardiant which would normally not have gotten into Phase 1.

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4. NJBiologist on February 14, 2008 5:09 PM writes...

Are there any affinity linkers which respond to other sorts of radiation (say, X-rays)? I've always wondered why you couldn't do a variant of photoaffinity where you dose a mouse instead of cells.

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5. Anonymous BMS Researcher on February 15, 2008 7:18 AM writes...

Re: NickK's insightful comment -- at least once in a typical week I will bring up aspirin Yet Again as the canonical example of an extremely valuable drug that could never get through the hoops we require of candidate molecules nowadays. And remember sildenafil failed in the indication for which it had been intended, and is on the market now for a what's basically a very profitable side effect.

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